EMTprep Free Training Materials

Our Free Training Materials include articles, test day tips, study guides and training videos as well as words of advice for both your NREMT journey and EMS career.


What is blood lactate? And what can altered levels be an indication of?

Lactate is a product of anaerobic metabolism - which is the result of cell metabolism in the absence of sufficient oxygen. Typically, lactate is metabolized by the liver to prevent toxic accumulation in the bloodstream (1). However, in the absence of adequate tissue perfusion, these levels can accumulate and have devastating effects on the body. “Normal lactate levels are less than 1.0 mmol/L in both arterial and venous blood[…] [and] one study showed a level above 4.0mmol/L was associated with a 27% mortality rate compared with 7% for patients with a lactate of 2.5-4.0 mmol/L2”...

Active shooter incidents (which often devolve into mass casualty incidents) are becoming a concern across the United States, with recent statistics showing that “in 2017, there were 29 active shooter events in the United States” (1). Thus we, as EMS professionals, must be educated in our role and response to an active shooter and/or mass casualty incident situation. 

What classifies an active shooter (AS) or mass casualty incident (MCI) scenario?

The U.S. Department of Homeland Security defines an AS as “an individual actively engaged in killing or attempting to kill people in a confined and populated area; in most cases, active shooters use...

Although our ability to manage strokes in the field is minimal, EMS serves a critical role in obtaining a history of the illness - specifically a patient’s last known normal. 

What changes in the AHA/ASA 2018 guidelines for stroke care are important to EMS providers?

Many of the changes made to the stroke management guidelines for 2018 are applicable only to the in-hospital setting. However, there are a few changes that have been made in regards to EMS identification and management of stroke patients in the pre-hospital setting.

The key changes to the guidelines have to do primarily with early identification of strokes using some tested stroke...

What is appendix G?

Appendix G was developed by the Committee on Accreditation of Educational Programs for the Emergency Medical Services Professions (CoAEMSP). This Committee provides accreditation to EMT programs across the nation and therefore sets the educations standards and expectations for these programs. 

Appendix G refers to the Student Patient Contact Matrix that designates the required number of patient contacts in the classroom, clinical, and field settings prior to successful completion of the program. Starting July 1st, 2019 the minimum recommendations for patient contacts is changing. These changes are based on research that has been...

          Managing gunshot wounds requires a working knowledge of several mechanisms. Understanding the anatomy and physiology of the body is imperative; the severity of the damage and impacted body structures must be quickly assessed. This assessment also requires knowledge of bullet mechanics as it travels through the human body. Gunshot wounds present different problems for prehospital providers depending on how many bullets made an impact, what part of the body the bullet traveled through, and what type of bullet the firearm ejected.

          A bullet from a gun has a certain amount of kinetic energy. Kinetic energy is (0.5)(m)(v2), where m is...

          Success in the oral board station of the paramedic certification exam relies on being thorough, professional, and competent. Since this station involves no actual application of skills and is completely verbal, it is important that your patient assessment treatment priorities are conveyed clearly. The NREMT oral board scenarios evaluate scene management, patient assessment, patient management, interpersonal relationships, and overall integration (NREMT, 2018). Integration takes into account your verbal report, field impression, and transport decision (NREMT, 2018). 

          Scene management hinges on recognizes potential hazards throughout...

          Kinematics is a branch of mechanics that deals with the motion of objects without references to the forces that cause that motion (PHTLS, 2016). Thus, the kinematics of trauma deals with looking at a trauma scene and attempting to determine what injuries might have resulted from the incident that took place (PHTLS, 2016). Certain injury patterns occur with certain mechanisms of injury; being aware of this allows pre-hospital providers to have high levels of suspicion for certain injuries when responding to a trauma call (PHTLS, 2016).

          A traumatic event consists of three stages: the pre-event, the event, and the post-event (PHTLS,...

            In this article, we are going to discuss the opioid abuse epidemic, what constitutes opioid abuse, and review the treatment options. Opioids are a class of drug that acts as a depressant on the central nervous system. This works by slowing or stopping breathing in an overdose, they increase pain tolerance, decrease reaction to pain, and decrease the perception of pain. Opioids are frequently prescribed by doctors for acute pain, debilitating pain, or for chronic pain in a palliative care setting. Because of this, opioids are frequently abused for their CNS depressant effects and because of their euphoric side effects.

            The rate...

           In this article, we are going to discuss what Ebola is, how it is spread, how we prevent its spread, and how we treat it in the field. A few years ago there was an Ebola outbreak that caused widespread panic and in order to combat this panic, we want to educate ourselves on how this happens and what we can do about it. There is still a lot of research that is being done on Ebola to determine how to best combat it, cure it, prevent it, and reduce its effects on us.

            Ebola is the name for a combination of 4 viruses that infect humans, one virus strain that affects primates and pigs, and one virus strain that isn’t fully understood...

In this article, we will look at an overview of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS). We will address how to recognize it, how to treat it, and we will review some of its causes. ACS is an umbrella term that encompasses:

  • Stable angina
  • Unstable angina
  • Myocardial infarctions.

ACS is most often caused by atherosclerosis, a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries that causes vasoconstriction and a lack of blood flow. ACS can also be caused by vasospasms which cause temporary vasoconstriction and lack of blood flow. One of the most common symptoms of ACS is chest pain, however, just because a patient has chest pain does not mean that they are...