EMTprep Free Training Materials

Visit each online resource provided for nutrition recommendations, and list one valuable piece of information you learned and how you plan on applying it to your current diet plan. 

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  • On MyPlate, I used the “Body Weight Planner” tool (https://www.niddk.nih.gov/bwp) to figure out what my nutrition needs were based on my weight gain/loss goals. This will help me understand my caloric needs, and how to break them down to specific macronutrient needs/recommendations.
  • On the Linus Pauling website, I looked up specific micronutrient needs of pregnant and lactating mothers (http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/life-stages/pregnancy-lactation) and was able to find foods that were high in the micronutrients I might be lacking.
  • Lastly, on the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics website, I found a recipe for tempeh skewers that is easy and healthy, and something I believe my family would enjoy. This will be a healthy alternative to fast food or a PB&J (https://www.eatright.org/food/planning-and-prep/recipes/peanut-sauce-stir-fry-and-tempeh-skewers-recipe).

Explain the difference between the three macronutrients and list the recommended dietary intake percentage for each.

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Carbohydrates are the body’s main fuel source. They are consumed as sugar or glucose, and are stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles. Glucose, or glycogen, is utilized first when the body requires energy. Fat can be used as a fuel source, but it is primarily used to store excess “energy”, and can be broken down for fuel if the body is depleted of carbohydrates. Fat is also crucial in the absorption and utilization of many vitamins and minerals, and provides protection and insulation to many vital organs. Lastly, protein is the “building block” of most tissues. Protein is comprised of amino acids, which allow tissues to grow and develop. Protein can be used as a fuel source, but this is only in the most dire of circumstances.

  • Carbohydrates should make up 46-65% of our diet
  • Fat should make up 20-35% of our diet
  • Protein should make up 10-35% of our diet.

“Ketogenic diets” or diets that exclude carbohydrates almost entirely are quite popular for weight loss right now. Knowing what you do about each macronutrient, how would you predict the removal of carbohydrates from one’s diet would affect the human body?

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A diet that completely, or almost completely, excludes an entire macronutrient group is often an extreme, and sometime dangerous choice for a diet. With the ketogenic diet specifically, which removes almost all carbohydrates from the diet, the body’s primary fuel source is removed, and the body is forced to resort to fat and even protein breakdown for fuel. This causes added stress on the body and is a less efficient means of energy utilization.

  • This is not included in the course, although it is important to know that being in a state of ketoacidosis is dangerous, and can cause long-term damage if done incorrectly. It depletes the body of water, increases acidity, and excludes many important micronutrients from the diet, which then need to be specifically supplemented back into the diet (typically in pill form).

Based on what you know about micronutrients, how would you explain the risk of micronutrient deficits to a coworker who eats the same three meals every single day?

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Micronutrients, or vitamins and minerals (also phytochemicals) are found in varying amounts in a large variety of whole and/or enriched foods. By only eating three specific meals day after day, one would not have enough variety in his/her diet to take in the necessary array of micronutrients to adequately support the essential functions of the human body. Over time, this would result in poor organ system function, and possible system failure if not supplemented correctly.

How would you explain the difference between physical activity and exercise? Why do you think it is important to make this distinction?

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Physical activity is inclusive of any movement a human does throughout his/her day. It typically includes activities of daily living like walking through the store, washing dishes, cleaning the house, taking a shower, etc. Exercise, on the other hand, is planned, organized, and structured activity that is done with a specific goal in mind. It is important to differentiate between these two things, because while they are both important, it is near impossible to live a healthy life is one is excluded. Both planned exercise that targets the heart, lungs, bones, and various muscle groups, as well as activity that simply involves movement of the body throughout the day are critical for overall health and energy expenditure.

Using only ACSM’s recommendations for frequency of cardiovascular, strength, and flexibility exercises, create a basic exercise regimen for an individual in the general population (please exclude specific exercises or modes of exercise, simply include days/time spent on each TYPE of exercise).

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Cardiovascular exercise could be done at a moderate intensity on a Monday, Wednesday, and Friday for 45 min each, and then a light walk for 30 min on a Sunday. Strength training of the total body could be done on Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday (to ensure each muscle group gets worked at least twice in a week). And Sunday could be spent doing static or dynamic stretching, following a light walk. This would allow for a more restful day, but one that is still contributing to the overall health and wellness of the body.

Knowing the importance of sleep for EMS providers, what changes could you make in your own life to ensure you are getting enough sleep, even if you regularly have a busy shift over night?

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Recommendations I have would include:

  • Be very intentional about sleeping on your days off. Have set hours that you sleep, and do everything possible to prevent interruption of those hours, and keep those hours consistent from week to week.
  • Try to take naps or have “down time” if possible while on shift.
  • Eat a healthy and well-rounded diet, and exercise regularly, this will make sleeping and staying asleep easier.
  • Avoid using electronics before bedtime, both on and off shift.
  • Be intentional about going to sleep early, if possible, while on shift to provide a greater opportunity for adequate sleep.

Knowing the importance of identifying potential hazards on a call, what information might be important to gather from dispatch prior to arriving on-scene? What information might be helpful to gather from a patient or bystanders on a scene? 

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Knowing what type of location we are going to (i.e. a home, school, busy street, business, factory, etc.) would be important to gather from dispatch. It would also be helpful to have an understanding of whether or not there are hazardous chemicals in the air, dangerous individuals or weapons involved, or if there is a danger of fire, traffic, electricity, or loose animals on scene. Information that would be important to gather on scene (in addition to any information above that dispatch was not able to provide) would be if the patient has any infectious or communicable diseases, has a weapon on him/her, or has been exposed to any toxic chemicals in the recent past. It would also be helpful to look around the scene and gather any and all information about any possible dangerous individuals or pets, or if there are any unseen environmental hazards.

How would you interact with a co-worker who you feel could be abusing drugs or alcohol?

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A situation like this would need to be approached delicately and with a lot of respect for the individual involved. I would want to make sure he/she knew they were loved and valued as a team member, and that no judgement would be passed. I would also want to be sure I had a solid relationship with that person, and that he/she knew I would handle any information given to me with full discretion. Next I would want to ask him/her if they had been feeling stressed, and that I am concerned about his/her on-the-job performance, as well as their overall health and wellbeing in their home/personal life. I would ideally want that individual to bring up the problem themselves, but I would probably try to gently coax it out of them if it was not coming up naturally. I would also want to offer them resources, and encourage them to seek counseling or the support of a “higher-up,” especially if I felt job performance (and therefore patient care) was at stake.

How would implementing a proper diet and exercise regimen aid in establishing proper stress-management habits?

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Proper diet and exercise help reduce stress, improve sleep habits, and provide the energy necessary to function in this high-risk, high-stress job by allowing the healthcare provider to feel and function at higher level. Proper diet and exercise reduces the risk of disease, improves the efficiency of the heart and lungs, reduces the risk of injury, and strengthens an individual’s immune system. Additionally, establishing these healthy lifestyle habits also helps prevent slipping into drug and alcohol abuse, as well as other risky, illicit, or dangerous “hobbies” outside of work.