EMTprep Free Training Materials

Explain Standard Precautions and the included PPE.

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Standard Precautions assumes all bodily fluids are infectious, and therefore that providers must take appropriate measures to avoid infection or contamination. This includes: gloves, facial protection, gowns, and N95 respirators

What are the three categories of stress EMS providers might encounter, how do they differ, and what is an example of each?

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Acute stress – occurs during a stressful situation (stress experienced in an MVA with multiple agencies and injuries)

Delayed stress – occurs after a stressful situation (PTSD from a response involving mass casualties)

Cumulative stress – prolonged or excessive stress (burnout from multiple stressful calls, where the effects on the provider have not been dealt with)

List the five stages of grief and describe how do the five stages of grief allow an individual to process the death of a loved one?

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  1. Denial – allows the mind to go numb briefly to protect the individual from experiencing the full brunt of the situation and his/her emotions
  2. Anger – allows an individual to begin to experience emotion, and connect that emotion to something tangible (sometimes the individual who passed, or a living loved one)
  3. Bargaining – gives the individual the chance to start facing the loss without having to fully accept the loss itself
  4. Depression – where pain, sadness, and loss is felt and processed through in a healthy way
  5. Acceptance – provides an opportunity for the individual to move on, without forgetting the loss of the loved one.

List and explain six ways to prevent work-related injuries in EMS.

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  1. Use seat belts – three point restrain system in case of accident in ambulance
  2. Safe lifting techniques – use legs not back, teamwork, and proper biomechanics (squat or power lift position
  3. Hazard awareness – monitor surroundings and scene upon arriving on scene and continuously thereafter
  4. Physical fitness and nutrition – taking care of one’s one body will prevent injury and disease
  5. Prevention of disease transmission – immunizations, PPE, and proper hand hygiene prevent the spread of disease in the field
  6. Adequate sleep – prevents mistakes and accidents both on the road and while treating patients

Describe how a crew might move a bariatric patient from his/her bed on the third floor of an apartment building down to their ambulance using safe lifting and moving techniques.

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Gather an appropriate number of crew members (likely 4-6), orient around patient so that weight is evenly distributed, use bariatric sling or stretcher and, as a crew, roll patient onto device. If possible, use a power stretcher to transport patient. If power stretcher is not available, continue to use entire crew to transport patient to first floor (use elevator if available, and has appropriate size and weight limit). If bariatric ambulance is available, ramps and winch can be used to load the stretcher. If bariatric ambulance is not available, use all available personnel to conduct a synchronized lift into the ambulance. Allow full communication, and ensure all crewmembers are aware of the lifting and moving plan prior to execution.

Why would knowing your personal limitations be important prior to lifting or moving a patient?

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Taking on a task that is beyond a person limitation can be dangerous for yourself, the patient, and the crew. Recognizing limitations is essential for safe and effective patient maneuvers.

Name two stances EMS providers can use when preparing to lift a patient or stretcher.

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  1. Power lift – feet wide, back flat, core engaged, strong grip, lift with weight as close to body as possible.
  2. Squat lift – similar to power lift, but with one foot slightly in front of the other. Keep weight between feet

What are the key differences between emergency moves and urgent moves? Describe a situation in which each might be used.

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Emergency moves are done without taking spinal precautions while urgent moves are done with spinal precautions in place. An emergency move might be done in the presence of immediate threat of fire, or in a hazardous scene. An urgent move might be done if the patient is in a position that requires movement prior to treatment (stuck in a small bathroom or pinned in a car).

Why would an ambulance carry a variety of patient transporting devices?

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There are many situations we might encounter as EMS providers. We often face stairs, tight hallways, fields, hills, and even mountainous areas. This means that we have to have a wide range of options for patient transport to ensure both provider and patient safety.

What type of patient would benefit most from a side lying (left), and slightly elevated position and why?

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Pregnant woman. Lying in a left lateral recumbent position takes pressure off the inferior vena cava, which allows adequate blood return. This can prevent supine hypotensive syndrome in women whose uteruses may put excessive pressure on these crucial vessels.