EMTprep Free Training Materials

Our Free Training Materials include articles, test day tips, study guides and training videos as well as words of advice for both your NREMT journey and EMS career.

Training Categorized: Respiratory

Both Croup and Epiglottitis are inflammatory conditions capable of impairing the upper airway. Though different by nature, croup, and epiglottitis present with similar signs and symptoms, making it difficult for EMS personnel to differentiate between the two. In this article, we will discuss the differences in these conditions and how to treat and manage them.


Croup is an acute form of laryngotracheobronchitis, which is inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi (and also a ridiculously long word). Croup commonly occurs in infants and children ages 6 months to 6 years and is characterized by low-grade fever, barking cough, hoarseness,...

Now that we have discussed the basics of Capnography, lets look at some common waveforms and how to interpret them. As was mentioned in the previous article, a normal waveform takes the shape of a square with an end-tidal measurement (height) between 35-45 mmHg and a baseline of zero. Below, we will see how changes in ventilation change the waveform shape and end-tidal measurement.


        The trademark sign of hyperventilation is a CO2 measurement of less than 35 mmHg. This is because hyperventilation causes a decreased CO2 level in the body due to excess elimination from rapid breathing. The shape of the waveform is typically...

As you may have learned from anatomy and physiology, carbon dioxide is a byproduct of cellular metabolism. Although it is considered waste and serves no valuable purpose for the body, it is greatly utilized in EMS and tells us a lot about what is going on in the body.

As the body reacts to different stressors, changes in carbon dioxide output occur, which can be measured using waveform capnography. End tidal CO2 devices detect CO2 as it is exhaled from a patient’s nose or mouth. These devices include a nasal cannula, or a small cylinder that can be placed on the end of a tracheal tube. The end tidal CO2 device connects to the monitor and displays a...

Cushing's Triad

This video is specifically provided by EMTprep to assist Members in preparing for the NREMT exam and related skills sheets and for no other purpose. NREMT study aids and resources provided by EMTprep are not intended to provide training for life saving techniques, emergency response training, or any other type of medical training.