EMTprep Free Training Materials

Our Free Training Materials include articles, test day tips, study guides and training videos as well as words of advice for both your NREMT journey and EMS career.

Training Categorized: Cardiac

            Epinephrine works by binding to alpha 1 and beta 1 receptors in the body to increase vasoconstriction and increase the positive inotropic and chronotropic effects of the heart. We remember this because of its use in cardiac arrest patients, asthma patients, bradycardic patients, and hypotensive patients. We’ve all used Epinephrine in varying concentrations either IM, SQ, IV, or IO for cardiac arrest calls, anaphylaxis calls, and some respiratory calls because it also affects beta 2 receptors for smooth muscle relaxation in the respiratory tract, and nebulized in pediatrics for croup.

Why would we use an epinephrine drip? These are useful...

Beck’s Triad is a set of three cardiovascular signs that indicate cardiac tamponade. These three signs got their name from the American cardiothoracic surgeon, Dr. Claude Beck, in 1935. In order to fully make sense of Beck’s triad and what it means, it's essential to understand cardiac tamponade.

Cardiac tamponade is an acute condition in which blood surrounds the heart, putting so much pressure on it, to the point where it is unable to effectively pump blood. You can think of it essentially as something squeezing the heart until it stops.

Surrounding the heart, there is a pericardial sac that is made up of two layers. Together, these two layers...

In EMS, auscultation of the heart is often an overlooked assessment. It is largely due to lack of education and lack of an ideal environment for listening to heart tones. Auscultating heart sounds is generally not a required part of the primary or secondary assessment, however, taking the time to do so, as well as having the knowledge to accurately perform this assessment and recognize abnormalities can make a big difference in the outcome of a patient.


It is preferable to perform auscultation of the heart while on-scene in a quiet environment if possible. The back of the ambulance is noisy and there is a lot of movement, which makes...

Ventricular Fibrillation ECG

In this ECG video, we review the characteristics of ventricular fibrillation or Vfib.