EMTprep Free Training Materials

Our Free Training Materials include articles, test day tips, study guides and training videos as well as words of advice for both your NREMT journey and EMS career.


Training Categorized: Advanced Skills

            Epinephrine works by binding to alpha 1 and beta 1 receptors in the body to increase vasoconstriction and increase the positive inotropic and chronotropic effects of the heart. We remember this because of its use in cardiac arrest patients, asthma patients, bradycardic patients, and hypotensive patients. We’ve all used Epinephrine in varying concentrations either IM, SQ, IV, or IO for cardiac arrest calls, anaphylaxis calls, and some respiratory calls because it also affects beta 2 receptors for smooth muscle relaxation in the respiratory tract, and nebulized in pediatrics for croup.

Why would we use an epinephrine drip? These are useful...

After months of paramedic school, clinicals, internship, and training, it was official, I had been deemed competent to be the lead paramedic of an ALS ambulance. The NREMT, State of California, and my employer had given me their blessing with full confidence that I was ready to take on whatever came my way. There was only one problem – I wasn’t.

Sure, I’d checked every box and passed every test. I had graduated from a top-tier paramedic program in the upper part of my class. Shoot, my internship preceptor had even given his stamp of approval (he wasn’t an easy one to please). Most calls I could handle well enough but there were those few that would...

One of the most invasive airway procedures that can be performed by a paramedic is a surgical cricothyrotomy. Although infrequent, this procedure could mean the difference between life and death for a patient when there are no other means of securing their airway. With that being said, surgical cricothyrotomy is only to be used when other methods for ventilating a patient are not possible, such as endotracheal intubation or the use of a BVM. We must also add, ALWAYS FOLLOW YOUR LOCAL PROTOCOLS AND PROCEDURES!!

In most cases, cricothyrotomy is not needed, as prior attempts at establishing an airway are usually successful. The incidence level for...

In EMS, auscultation of the heart is often an overlooked assessment. It is largely due to lack of education and lack of an ideal environment for listening to heart tones. Auscultating heart sounds is generally not a required part of the primary or secondary assessment, however, taking the time to do so, as well as having the knowledge to accurately perform this assessment and recognize abnormalities can make a big difference in the outcome of a patient.

Auscultation

It is preferable to perform auscultation of the heart while on-scene in a quiet environment if possible. The back of the ambulance is noisy and there is a lot of movement, which makes...