EMTprep Free Training Materials

Our Free Training Materials include articles, test day tips, study guides and training videos as well as words of advice for both your NREMT journey and EMS career.


Training Categorized: 12-Lead EKG

Atrioventricular Blocks Study Guide

Arguably the most difficult thing to remember in ECG class are Atrioventricular (AV) Blocks. The goal of this study guide will be to clarify any information you find confusing AND provide you with an easy way to remember the different types.

Let’s go back to some A&P. We learned that the AV junction is the area that links the atria and the ventricles. Should a person experience a problem with conduction in the AV node itself, the bundle of His, or the His-Purkinje system, they will present with an Atrioventricular Block.

We get asked many times throughout the year, how do you differentiate between the 4 types...

In EMS, we have few diagnostic tools. A 12-lead ECG is one of them. The goal of this study guide is to lay the foundation for how you interpret each 12-lead ECG you run on your patients. This is by no means the end all, be all guide for 12-leads. Reading and interpreting a 12-lead ECG takes hundreds of repetitions and lots of study time. As always, follow your local protocols. No piece of information found on our website is ever meant to be a substitute for the protocols by which you operate under in your department/agency.

Axis Determination

Why do we care about axis determination?

A shifted axis may...

Paced Rhythm
The paced rhythm has always been easy and complicated to me at the same time. You put on your 4-lead cables and take a look at the monitor. “What the heck is that?” is your first response and then your brain kicks in and says, “Oh, it’s just a paced rhythm.” Hopefully this post will give you some more information to think about and consider the next time you see a paced rhythm in the field.

Things to Remember:

  • Pacemakers can be single-chamber or dual-chamber
    • Single-Chamber pacemakers pace only one chamber in the heart, either a ventricle or atria.
    • Dual Chamber pacemakers will pace both an atria and a ventricle.
  • Pacer Spikes...

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Patient History: 87y/o male with a chief complaint of AMS and weakness. Family on scene state that the patient has a history of diabetes, renal failure, CABG x3 (12 years ago), and high cholesterol.

Medications: Lantus, Simvastatin, and warfarin.

Allergies: Penicillin and Sulfa Family Medications

Vital Signs: BP 91/53, HR as shown in the 12-lead, CBG 187 mg/dL, SpO2 91% on room air, Temp 97.9 deg F (oral).

12-Lead Findings: Remember to walk through the steps we’ve outlined for you. If you forgot a step or two, watch our video HERE for review.

  1. Rate: Approx. 100 bpm
  2. Rhythm: Appears to be a regular wide complex rhythm
  3. Axis: -68...